Tanzania (TGCL)

Academic Persecution: Independent International Crime or Subject to a Connection Requirement?

Academic Persecution: Independent International Crime or Subject to a Connection Requirement?

Around the world today, Turkey, Hungary , China, Syria, Iran & Uganda, scholars  and academics are attacked because of their words,  ideas and their place in society. Those seeking power and control work to limit access to information and new ideas by targeting scholars, restricting academic freedom and repressing research, publication, teaching and learning.

Scholars ask difficult questions and that can be threatening to authorities whose power depends on controlling information and what people think. When academics are silenced or subjected to self censorship their communities are disadvantaged. Every year thousands of academics across the world are harassed, censored tortured and killed. The persecution of academics has occurred repeatedly in the course of human civilization. Notable examples are the migration of the Greek scholars from Constantinople to Italy, the expulsion of the Huguenots from France , the intelligenzaktion of scientists and academics in occupied Poland and the arrest of Sudanese  biology Professor Farouk Mohammed for teaching evolution.

On 2nd June 2019, I submitted an Article 15 communication to the Office of the Prosecutor(OTP) of the International Criminal Court (ICC). The communication calls upon the ICC to conduct a preliminary examination on persecution as a crime against humanity committed against scholars and academics in Uganda. However, the purpose of this article is not to discuss the merits of the communication but rather to moot the conversation on academic persecution and its place in international criminal law as an independent crime. Is persecution an independent international crime or does it require a connection element?

Article 7(1)(h) of ICC Statute ,Connection Requirement and Ambiguities

The crime of persecution has always been subject to debate and raises fundamental questions.

Is persecution an independent international crime ?

Does the crime of persecution require a connection element?

Article 7 of the ICC Statute in the verbatim states that a crime against humanity” means any of the following acts when committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population,with knowledge of the attack The ICC statute further describes the crime of persecution in (Article7(1)h) :Persecution against any identifiable group or collectivity on political, racial, national, ethnic, cultural, religious, gender as defined in paragraph 3, or other grounds that are universally recognized as impermissible under international law, in connection with any act referred to in this paragraph or any crime within the jurisdiction of the Court. The statute goes on to  provide that for the purposes of the above : Persecution means the intentional and severe deprivation of fundamental rights contrary to international law by reason of the identity of the group or collectivity.

The ICC elements of crime provides the following  constitutive elements for the crime of persecution including the mental element as follows:

  • The perpetrator severely deprived, contrary to international law, one or more persons of fundamental rights.

  • The perpetrator targeted such person or persons by reason of the identity of a group or collectivity or targeted the group or collectivity as such.

  • Such targeting was based on political, racial, national, ethnic, cultural, religious, gender as defined in article 7, paragraph 3, of the Statute, or other grounds that are universally recognized as impermissible under international law.

  • The conduct was committed in CONNECTION with any act referred to in article 7, paragraph 1, of the Statute or any crime within the jurisdiction of the Court.

The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia(ICTY) has a measurable body of  jurisprudence when it comes to the international crime of persecution. For example, out of the ninety (90) who to date have been convicted by the ICTY, forty(40) had been charged with the crime of persecution. It is important to note that the crime of persecution was hardly applied in international or national law before the start of the ICTY proceedings. The ICTY case law dealing with the crime of persecution is one of the most important contributions of the ICTY to international criminal law. This body of jurisprudence clearly rejects that the crime of persecution needs to be subject to a connection requirement. The (ICTY), in the Kupreškič case, affirmed that:The Trial Chamber rejects the notion that persecution must be linked to crimes found elsewhere in the Statute of the International Tribunal.

The other dilemma that has emerged is the problematic formulation by the International Law Commission (ILC) work on the proposed crimes against humanity convention. The ILC formulation provides for a rather troubling connection requirement for the crime of persecution with specificity to geneocide and war crimes. Article 3(1)(h) of the Draft ILC Articles reads as follows: Persecution against any identifiable group or collectivity on political, racial, national, ethnic, cultural, religious, gender as defined in paragraph 3, or other grounds that are universally recognized as impermissible under international law, in connection with any act referred to in this paragraph or in connection with the crime of genocide or war crimes. The chairman of the ILC drafting committee Mr. Mathias Forteau stated in his report that the act of persecution defined in sub-paragraph (h) refers to any act “in connection with the crime of genocide or war crimes” while the ICC Statute refers to “any crime within the jurisdiction of the Court”.

I do argue that the use of the terms “in connection with” is vague, problematic and susceptible to many interpretations and misinterpretations. In sum these ambiguities trigger the need to moot a conversation on the international crime of persecution especially the persecution of scholars and academics and its place in international criminal law. Is it an independent international crime without a nexus to other crimes?If i  were to give the text of the statute its ordinary meaning or interpretation, persecution as a crime against humanity is an independent international crime without the need for a connection requirement. To my knowledge the connection requirement has no basis in international law and was merely a juridictional filter by the drafters of the text.

Scholars like Professor Gerhard Werle in the second edition of his book principles of international criminal law explained that “The requirement of a connection was intended to take account of the concerns about the breadth of the crime of persecution. With this accessorial design, the ICC Statute lags behind customary international law, since the crime of persecution, like crimes against humanity, has developed into an independent crime

Academics and scholars do belong to an identifiable group or collectively because of their scholarship. Perpetrators especially repressive and dictatorial regimes target such person or persons by reason of their identity as a group. The perpetrators often severely deprive, contrary to international law, one or more persons of fundamental rights. It is important to note that the crime of persecution as a crime against humanity is not about numbers, the text of the elements of crimes uses the wordperson or persons”. In Turkey as of 2016 approximately 23,400 academics were persecuted by the Turkish authorities. In Uganda as of December 2018 Dr. Stella Nyanzi was arrested and 45 academics at Makerere university were sacked without due process. The appaling  emergence of  academic perseuction across the globe needs to be viewed from an international criminal justice persective.

In sum the travaux preparatoires among government delegates during the negotiations of the ICC Statute clearly illustrates that the connection requirement was simply a compromise clause and merely a jurisdictional filter. I do believe that the requirement of a connection to other crimes was simply used as jurisdictional filter considering the scope of persecution as an international crime. The unsettled field of international criminal law often tends to create new constituencies that ought to be subjected to further academic interrogation. The need to moot a conversation on academic persecution as an international crime  is not only neccesary it is timely.

Samuel Matsiko is a research fellow at the Amsterdam Center for War Reparations.He is also an early-career investigator and research fellow with the EU Cost ActionJustice360– Global Atrocity Justice Constellations”  . Email:  matsikosam@syrianlegalnetwork.nl.

Deadline extended to June 25th – 2nd DAAD Centers for African Excellence Alumni Conference

Dear all, as we still have some free slots for our alumni conference, we have extended the application deadline to June 25th. For those presenting their work in the conference, tickets for international travel, catering and accommodation will be provided.

2nd DAAD Centers for African Excellence Alumni Conference

Ghana, 06th – 09th November 2018

Abstract submission until June 25th 2018

Sustainable Development in Africa: The Role of Science and Education

The promotion of sustainable development is the result of an unprecedented global consensus about the need to foster economic development in ways that reduce poverty and inequality, to enhance political participation and good governance, without destroying the natural environment that forms the substrate of human life, taking into account both the needs of current and future generations. The ideals encompassed in the original formulation of the concept are broadly shared in public discourse and among important political institutions, as demonstrated by the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Many academic institutions, as well as individual researchers, conduct research, design curricula, and train students in order to generate the required knowledge and professional expertise to transform public policies towards sustainable development. The DAAD Centers of Excellence in Sub-Saharan Africa agree on the importance of promoting sustainable development and advance sustainability through:

  • Research, producing innovative knowledge, approaches, and technologies helping to attain sustainable development
  • Training highly qualified professionals who can contribute to sustainable development working in multiple sectors within and outside of universities
  • Engaging in outreach activities promoting the DAAD Centers’ results, products and alumni

Since the nexus between the DAAD centers and their contribution to Africa’s sustainable development has not yet been explicitly addressed, we would like to invite you to the Second DAAD African Centers of Excellence Alumni Conference, which will address the topic Sustainable Development in Africa: The Role of Science and Education.

The Conference will be held in Accra, Ghana from 06th to 9th November 2018 at the Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research (ISSER), based in the University of Ghana, Legon. The 2nd DAAD Centers for African Excellence Alumni Conference results from a collaboration between ISSER, the Ghanaian-German Center for Development Studies (GGCDS), and the ISSER/GGCDS Alumni Network (IGAN).

We are interested in the experiences and contributions that the DAAD Centers of African Excellence have made towards the promotion of sustainability through their research, but also through the expertise they bring to bear in their professional practice. We also want to discuss where the alumni see additional potential for promotion of sustainable development by the centers. Thus the contributions should address the following questions:

  • How has/can your research contributed/contribute to sustainable development?
  • How can/does the training received at the centers contribute to your professional practice in promoting sustainable development?
  • How could the centers further enhance students’ capabilities towards the promotion of sustainable development?
  • How can interdisciplinary cooperation between the African Centers of Excellence help to enhance sustainable development?

While focusing on sustainable development in general, we are interested in fostering (interdisciplinary) discussions that relate to the many facets of sustainability addressed in the various centers:

  • Science, knowledge production and education
  • Logistics, economic development and financial inclusion
  • Natural resources governance and mineral extraction
  • Governance and law
  • Agriculture, rural development and rural-urban transformation
  • Migration and social mobility

The conference will be organized in thematic workshops. In these workshops the core questions outlined will be addressed. The output from individual workshops and the plenary discussion will be captured and compiled in a conference report. This report will detail current successes, identify capacity needs, and potential areas of future collaboration.

In order to participate, please send an abstract (not more than 500 words) of your intended presentation and a short summary of your curriculum vitae (including, if applicable, your most relevant publications). Please also indicate in which thematic workshop you would like to present your work (e.g. Science, Knowledge production and education; logistics, economic development and financial inclusion; natural resources governance and mineral extraction, etc.). Proposals shall be sent to the email addresses igan.ghana@gmail.com and Tetteh.alumni@gmail.com with the subject “Abstract – application to the 2nd DAAD Alumni conference” until June 15th 2018. A scientific committee with members from ISSER, GGCDS and of the ISSER/GGCDS alumni network will select the participants based on the quality of their proposal, their academic and professional activities, and the thematic pertinence of their contribution. Gender balance and diversity among participants (including all DAAD centers for African Excellence) will also be considered.

For those alumni presenting their work in the conference tickets for international travel, catering and accommodation in Accra will be provided.

Here the tentative programme: Alumni Conference 2018-Call for applicationsAP-14.06.18

REMINDER – CALL FOR APPLICATIONS: 2nd DAAD Centers for African Excellence Alumni Conference – send your abstract until June 15th 2018

CALL FOR APPLICATIONS

2nd DAAD Centers for African Excellence Alumni Conference

Accra, Ghana, 06th – 09th November 2018

Abstract submission until June 15th 2018

Sustainable Development in Africa: The Role of Science and Education

The promotion of sustainable development is the result of an unprecedented global consensus about the need to foster economic development in ways that reduce poverty and inequality, to enhance political participation and good governance, without destroying the natural environment that forms the substrate of human life, taking into account both the needs of current and future generations. The ideals encompassed in the original formulation of the concept are broadly shared in public discourse and among important political institutions, as demonstrated by the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Many academic institutions, as well as individual researchers, conduct research, design curricula, and train students in order to generate the required knowledge and professional expertise to transform public policies towards sustainable development. The DAAD Centers of Excellence in Sub-Saharan Africa agree on the importance of promoting sustainable development and advance sustainability through:

  • Research, producing innovative knowledge, approaches, and technologies helping to attain sustainable development
  • Training highly qualified professionals who can contribute to sustainable development working in multiple sectors within and outside of universities
  • Engaging in outreach activities promoting the DAAD Centers’ results, products and alumni

Since the nexus between the DAAD centers and their contribution to Africa’s sustainable development has not yet been explicitly addressed, we would like to invite you to the Second DAAD African Centers of Excellence Alumni Conference, which will address the topic Sustainable Development in Africa: The Role of Science and Education.

The Conference will be held in Accra, Ghana from 06th to 9th November 2018 at the Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research (ISSER), based in the University of Ghana, Legon. The 2nd DAAD Centers for African Excellence Alumni Conference results from a collaboration between ISSER, the Ghanaian-German Center for Development Studies (GGCDS), and the ISSER/GGCDS Alumni Network (IGAN).

We are interested in the experiences and contributions that the DAAD Centers of African Excellence have made towards the promotion of sustainability through their research, but also through the expertise they bring to bear in their professional practice. We also want to discuss where the alumni see additional potential for promotion of sustainable development by the centers. Thus the contributions should address the following questions:

  • How has/can your research contributed/contribute to sustainable development?
  • How can/does the training received at the centers contribute to your professional practice in promoting sustainable development?
  • How could the centers further enhance students’ capabilities towards the promotion of sustainable development?
  • How can interdisciplinary cooperation between the African Centers of Excellence help to enhance sustainable development?

While focusing on sustainable development in general, we are interested in fostering (interdisciplinary) discussions that relate to the many facets of sustainability addressed in the various centers:

  • Science, knowledge production and education
  • Logistics, economic development and financial inclusion
  • Natural resources governance and mineral extraction
  • Governance and law
  • Agriculture, rural development and rural-urban transformation
  • Migration and social mobility

The conference will be organized in thematic workshops. In these workshops the core questions outlined will be addressed. The output from individual workshops and the plenary discussion will be captured and compiled in a conference report. This report will detail current successes, identify capacity needs, and potential areas of future collaboration.

In order to participate, please send an abstract (not more than 500 words) of your intended presentation and a short summary of your curriculum vitae (including, if applicable, your most relevant publications). Please also indicate in which thematic workshop you would like to present your work (e.g. Science, Knowledge production and education; logistics, economic development and financial inclusion; natural resources governance and mineral extraction, etc.). Proposals shall be sent to the email addresses igan.ghana@gmail.com and Tetteh.alumni@gmail.com with the subject “Abstract – application to the 2nd DAAD Alumni conference” until June 15th 2018. A scientific committee with members from ISSER, GGCDS and of the ISSER/GGCDS alumni network will select the participants based on the quality of their proposal, their academic and professional activities, and the thematic pertinence of their contribution. Gender balance and diversity among participants (including all DAAD centers for African Excellence) will also be considered.

For those alumni presenting their work in the conference tickets for international travel, catering and accommodation in Accra will be provided.

See the attached file for the tentative program: Alumni Conference 2018-Call for applications

CALL FOR APPLICATIONS: 2nd DAAD Centers for African Excellence Alumni Conference – send your abstract until June 15th 2018

CALL FOR APPLICATIONS

2nd DAAD Centers for African Excellence Alumni Conference

Accra, Ghana, 06th – 09th November 2018

Abstract submission until June 15th 2018

Sustainable Development in Africa: The Role of Science and Education

The promotion of sustainable development is the result of an unprecedented global consensus about the need to foster economic development in ways that reduce poverty and inequality, to enhance political participation and good governance, without destroying the natural environment that forms the substrate of human life, taking into account both the needs of current and future generations. The ideals encompassed in the original formulation of the concept are broadly shared in public discourse and among important political institutions, as demonstrated by the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Many academic institutions, as well as individual researchers, conduct research, design curricula, and train students in order to generate the required knowledge and professional expertise to transform public policies towards sustainable development. The DAAD Centers of Excellence in Sub-Saharan Africa agree on the importance of promoting sustainable development and advance sustainability through:

  • Research, producing innovative knowledge, approaches, and technologies helping to attain sustainable development
  • Training highly qualified professionals who can contribute to sustainable development working in multiple sectors within and outside of universities
  • Engaging in outreach activities promoting the DAAD Centers’ results, products and alumni

Since the nexus between the DAAD centers and their contribution to Africa’s sustainable development has not yet been explicitly addressed, we would like to invite you to the Second DAAD African Centers of Excellence Alumni Conference, which will address the topic Sustainable Development in Africa: The Role of Science and Education.

The Conference will be held in Accra, Ghana from 06th to 9th November 2018 at the Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research (ISSER), based in the University of Ghana, Legon. The 2nd DAAD Centers for African Excellence Alumni Conference results from a collaboration between ISSER, the Ghanaian-German Center for Development Studies (GGCDS), and the ISSER/GGCDS Alumni Network (IGAN).

We are interested in the experiences and contributions that the DAAD Centers of African Excellence have made towards the promotion of sustainability through their research, but also through the expertise they bring to bear in their professional practice. We also want to discuss where the alumni see additional potential for promotion of sustainable development by the centers. Thus the contributions should address the following questions:

  • How has/can your research contributed/contribute to sustainable development?
  • How can/does the training received at the centers contribute to your professional practice in promoting sustainable development?
  • How could the centers further enhance students’ capabilities towards the promotion of sustainable development?
  • How can interdisciplinary cooperation between the African Centers of Excellence help to enhance sustainable development?

While focusing on sustainable development in general, we are interested in fostering (interdisciplinary) discussions that relate to the many facets of sustainability addressed in the various centers:

  • Science, knowledge production and education
  • Logistics, economic development and financial inclusion
  • Natural resources governance and mineral extraction
  • Governance and law
  • Agriculture, rural development and rural-urban transformation
  • Migration and social mobility

The conference will be organized in thematic workshops. In these workshops the core questions outlined will be addressed. The output from individual workshops and the plenary discussion will be captured and compiled in a conference report. This report will detail current successes, identify capacity needs, and potential areas of future collaboration.

In order to participate, please send an abstract (not more than 500 words) of your intended presentation and a short summary of your curriculum vitae (including, if applicable, your most relevant publications). Please also indicate in which thematic workshop you would like to present your work (e.g. Science, Knowledge production and education; logistics, economic development and financial inclusion; natural resources governance and mineral extraction, etc.). Proposals shall be sent to the email addresses igan.ghana@gmail.com and Tetteh.alumni@gmail.com with the subject “Abstract – application to the 2nd DAAD Alumni conference” until June 15th 2018. A scientific committee with members from ISSER, GGCDS and of the ISSER/GGCDS alumni network will select the participants based on the quality of their proposal, their academic and professional activities, and the thematic pertinence of their contribution. Gender balance and diversity among participants (including all DAAD centers for African Excellence) will also be considered.

For those alumni presenting their work in the conference tickets for international travel, catering and accommodation in Accra will be provided.

See the attached file for the tentative program: Alumni Conference 2018-Call for applications

Interdisciplinary Research Workshop on Regional Integration in Dar es Salaam

The Tanzanian-German Centre for Eastern African Legal Studies (TGCL) recently hosted an international interdisciplinary Research Workshop in Dar es Salaam. This workshop marked the start of a large-scale research project entitled “Steering Regional Development through Regional Economic Communities in Africa: Legal, Economic and Political Instruments”. The project was officially launched by the Minister of Justice and Constitutional Affairs of Tanzania, Hon. Professor Dr Palamagamba J. Kabudi, in the course of the workshop

Within this newly established research project, 34 researchers from Benin, Burundi, Germany, Ghana/Canada, Kenya, Nigeria/South Africa, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe will work together to analyse current issues of African Regional Economic Communities. The focus lies on the institutional setup of these communities, the implementation of community law on the national level as well as on harmonisation of laws. It is a unique feature of the project that researchers from the disciplines of law, economics and political sciences will cooperate to enrich their respective perspectives with interdisciplinary insights.

The project is funded by the Germany Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) from March 2017 up to December 2018. It is jointly carried out by the University of Bayreuth and the University of Dar es Salaam School of Law. The leadership team comprises Mr Johannes Döveling (Bayreuth, Project Leader), Dr Daniel Shayo (Dar es Salaam, Project Coordinator) and Mr Petro Protas (Dar es Salaam, Assistant to the Coordinator).

More information on the project (in German).

Researchers from all over Africa and from Europe participated in the Research Workshop.
Minister of Justice Hon. Prof. Kabudi launched the Research Project.

TGCL Welcomes New LLM and PhD Students

The Tanzanian-German Centre for Eastern African Legal Studies (TGCL) inaugurated its new academic year 2016/17 with a formal opening ceremony on 3 October 2016. At this event, 15 new LLM students and two new PhD students were received by Dr Evaristo Longopa, University of Dar es Salaam School of Law, by TGCL student adviser Hon. Dr Steven Bwana and by the TGCL management team, consisting of Mr Johannes Döveling, Ms Carolin Herzog and Ms Mary Mgaya.

After words of welcome by Dr Longopa on behalf of the Dean of the School of Law, Mr Johannes Döveling gave an overview on the TGCL and its activities. Student adviser Hon. Dr Steven Bwana followed with a few words of advice, pointing out the crucial role of integer and well-trained lawyers for the East African societies. After introducing the students to the Academic Programme 2016/2017, Ms Carolin Herzog briefly reported on the planned study trips to one of the capitals of the East African Community and to Europe. After a question and answer session the event found a successful conclusion in a joint lunch.

Out of the 17 newly admitted students, one is from Burundi, five are from Kenya, two from Rwanda, five from Tanzania and four from Uganda. Up until today, the TGCL has admitted 128 students to its study programmes, whereas half of them originates from outside of Tanzania.

TGCL Opening Ceremony

TGCL Autumn University 2016

This year, as in previous years, a group of East African master’s and PhD students of law from the Tanzanian-German Centre for Eastern African Legal Studies (TGCL) were able to undertake a study trip from 4 to 16 September 2016 under the leadership of the TGCL manager, Johannes Döveling, visiting first Bayreuth and then Nuremberg, Berlin and Brussels.

This study trip to Europe has been an annual event since 2010. It enables the participants to expand their theoretical knowledge and to make comparisons between the legal systems of East Africa and Europe. In addition to lectures on German law at the University of Bayreuth, the programme included visits to the regional court and the district court in Bayreuth, and to the Town Hall, where the Mayor, Thomas Ebersberger, welcomed the students and explained to them how municipal councils function within the German state structure.

 

Students of the TGCL and Thomas Ebersberger
TGCL student group with second Mayor Thomas Ebersberger

 

In Berlin, the students were able to speak with officials at the Federal Foreign Office, the Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection, and the Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development. A special highlight was a visit to the German Parliament (Bundestag), where Dr. Silke Launert, a member of the German Parliament, explained to the students how the German Parliament works and engaged in a lively discussion with them. The group also met PhD students from the South African-German Centre for Transnational Criminal Justice at Berlin’s Humboldt University, and were able to exchange views with them and discuss their respective research projects.

 

Students of the TGCL and Dr. Silke Launert
At the German Parliament with MP Dr. Silke Launert

 

Since 2014, the study trip has also included a visit to Brussels, which allows the students to make direct comparisons between the working of the European Union and that of the East African Community (EAC). In addition to an informative lecture in the European Parliament, the students were given talks at the European Commission on the European Single Market and on Competition Law. They also enjoyed a visit to the Embassy of the Republic of Kenya, where they were received by the Deputy Ambassador, Ms. Mechtilde Musula. She explained the special duties of an East African Ambassador to the European Union, in particular representation on bilateral and multilateral levels. The trip ended with an invitation to visit Transparency International. There, Edward McMillan gave the students an overview of the strategies followed by this NGO for combating corruption.

 

TGCL Autumn University 2016
TGCL students with Ms Patricia Hamel at the Representation of the Free State of Bavaria to the European Union

 

In their feedback, the participants expressed their great satisfaction with the organisation of the study trip. Of particular interest to them was the fact that judges can make their decisions impartially in the pursuit of justice, free of any political influence. In the light of increasing decentralisation, the students also found it very useful to gain insights into the German federal system and the governance structures of multi-level systems.

Visit of Members of the Tanzanian-German Centre for Eastern African Legal Studies to the South African-German Centre for Transnational Criminal Justice

On Monday, 12 September 2016, members of the Tanzanian-German Centre for Eastern African Legal Studies visited the South African-German Centre for Transnational Criminal Justice at the Faculty of Law Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. With a delegation of 19 participants comprising the project manager, project assistant, student assistant, a PhD candidate and fifteen LLM students, the group was received by the course coordinator and three PhD candidates of the South African-German Centre.

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The deliberations started with a short introduction of the participants and a general overview of their research projects. The LLM students of the Tanzanian-German Centre presented their research, due to the fact that they were at the final stages, an analysis of their individual thesis  and a summary of their findings was communicated  to the group. This brought up a variety of interesting issues in the various fields of their research including, amongst others, international criminal law, human rights and good governance, economic aspects of regional integration and refugee law in the East African context.

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Additionally, the doctoral candidates of the South African-German Centre also had the opportunity to provide an overview of their research in the area of international criminal law and transitional justice, the progress of their research and the outlook for its conclusion. Each doctoral candidate presented an analysis of selected important issues of their research dealing with the relation of the International Criminal Court and Palestine, the role of transnational terrorism in international criminal law and an evaluation of the Red Terror Trials in Ethiopia in the context of the prosecution of politicide. Consequently, this led to a period of intense question and answer, particularly on some of the more controversial issues in their research areas and some of the issues raised in the presentations.

The official discussions ended on a very high note and many of the participants continued private discussions on some of the contentious issues after the deliberations were officially closed.